As in all areas, economic reforms in the agrarian sector have created a real basis for increasing the production of agricultural products, including the production of grape making and wine making products and the provision of the demand of the population of the republic for food products.
Grape making and wine-making are one of the most profitable areas of agriculture. The products produced in this field are characterized by their wide variety and diversity. Grape making is one of the agricultural fields that played an important role in the life and economy of the Azerbaijani people from ancient times.
Today, the grape making and winemaking areas have become one of the priority areas in the development of the country's economy. In recent years, special attention is paid to the development of grape making and wine-making in our country and important public decisions are made for the development of this sphere and measures are being taken. Thus, the "State Program on Development of Grape Making in the Republic of Azerbaijan for 2012-2020", approved by the Order No. 1890 of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan dated December 15, 2011 has been adopted and implemented.
In order to strengthen scientific support in the field of grape making and winemaking, it is planned to create new grape varieties, carry out agro-technical and agrochemical measures, conduct researches on disease and pest control, including construction of 50,000 hectares of new vineyards in the country by 2020.
Agrotechnical measures and operations carried out in vineyards each year should be conducted based on the soil-climatic conditions of the biological and plant-growing place where the grape varieties are cultivated. The productivity of the grapes forms and develops under the influence of various factors (abiotic, biotic, anthropogenic) and mutual relations of measures, along with its biological characteristics.
However, there are a number of problems in the construction of new vineyards, planting, mainly in the selection of grape varieties. It is difficult to reach the targets set in the farm because agro technical care is applied to all sorts in the form of template, as the biodiversity of some grape varieties is not consistent with the soil-climatic conditions of the region where it is cultivated. It is impossible to obtain abundant and high-quality products without the proper agro technological cultivation technology under cultivation conditions of the sorts. Nowadays, one of the actual problems in the country is an increase in production of grape and wine products that are of high quality, ecologically clean, meeting the world standards, bearing market competition. The acquisition and production of the required products primarily and significantly depend on the implementation of proper agro-technical measures in the field of grape making and the application of new technologies.
The soil-climatic conditions of our Republic are extremely favourable for the grape plant and all grape varieties can be successfully grown in each region. However, it is essential to keep the ingenuity in their cultivation and processing up-to-date. The usefulness of agrotechnical measures in vineyards is also determined by soil-climatic conditions. The issue of regionalization of grape varieties at one time was regarded as a state measure. Our grape-growers have a certain knowledge and experience of the regionalized sorts. However, there is little information in our grape-growers about which region is useful for most grape varieties brought from the abroad nowadays.
From this point of view, the study of morphological, biological and economic-technological features of valuable local and imported grape varieties in the soil-climatic conditions of the grape-growing regions of the republic and the study of the scientific basis of cultivation technology based on biological features of the variety and ecological features of the area are considered actual theoretical and practical problems.
Agrotechnical measures taken during various grape vegetation period
It is recommended that farmers and specialists involved in grape making know the phenology of grape varieties they cultivate. Because each period of grape varieties is unique and implementation of different agrotechnical cultivation, protection, etc. measures for each phenophase is required.
Sort, ecological condition and plant cultivation technology is one of the main conditions for obtaining stable products every year from agricultural plants. These factors have a direct impact on the quality formation of the end products (wine, juice, table grape, movuj, raisin, etc.) derived from grape plant.
Each contemporary representative of the plant world, as well as grape plant is a product of the process of evolution. Domestically cultivated plants, as well as the forms of grape sorts reaching the present evolutionary level and kept are the representatives that are successfully exposed to the extreme environmental factors at the outbreak of natural and artificial selection and meet economic interests of the people.
The ontogenesis of plants, that is, the great life cycle, is realized by a recurring short-term life cycle each year. In the subtropical and mild climate areas of the globe, the annual cycle of grapes is divided into relative tranquillity and vegetation periods.
Processes that are essential to life in germination during vegetation - growth, development, productivity, etc. occurs. This period starts with juice movement in grape, followed by processes such as blossoming, root developing, appearance of leaves and flowering, blossoming, formation of blossoms, development of grape and its growing, growing of roots, stoppage of growing and leafage processes. In general, due to the fact that the processes observed during the vegetation phase change to new quality conditions, they are mostly divided into 6 phenophases - juice movements, blossoming (growth of root and flower), formation of flower and growth, flowering, growing of plants and leafage.
Such a division allows the grape plant to carry out different agrotechnical measures in accordance with each stage of development during vegetation and relative tranquillity. The beginning, continuation and development of separate phenophases in grape depends on soil-climatic conditions, biological characteristics of the sorts, topographical condition of the place and grape condition, especially on the weather conditions of the year.
Grape is a long-lasting plant (60-80 years or more). The bush appears from the planted sapling, give harvest each year, becomes old and destroyed. Depending on the growing conditions, the biological characteristics of the sorts, and the agrotechnics applied, the sapling grows and gives harvest either less or more, turns out to be short and long lasting, with a short and long life span. Throughout the year, many processes take place in connection with complex conditions during annual development stages.
The stronger the root of a grape develops, the more its productivity and life will be. The grape with a weak vegetation starts its growth and yielding process quickly and soon expires. Therefore, cultivation of strong and fresh grape seeds in vineyards can meet daily demand. Only such bushes give more and a very high quality product each year. Sometimes the product of excessively strong developed bushes can be either less productive or none. This is because the incorrect use of agrotechnical equipment. To prevent it, strongly developed bushes should be given a suitable shape. Thus, the bar fingers should be cut long and their number should be adjusted accordingly.
Relative tranquillity cycle. The relative tranquillity period lasts for about 4-5 months, although it is passive in grape; however, some morphological and physiological processes occur in it. The rest of the season is the period of vegetation, which covers the period from the start of the juice movement to the fall of the leaf, the juice movement contains such life processes as blossoming, growing of roots and flowers, flowering, formation of grape and its growing, becoming big and leafage.
In zones with moderate warm climate, this period starts approximately on the first half of autumn and is characterized by a number of signs (R.Mammadov, C. Suleymanov, 1978).
Thus, growing of roots ends and they receive the colour of the sort. The leaves become autumn-coloured and fall down; grey covering is formed on the leaf where it is separated from the root, sometimes the first autumn frost causes the leaves to grow without intact, and the leaf falls without formation of the layer. In this case, greyish-green layers are formed where the leaf bundle is combined with the root. Several cell layers of the foundation inside the root are covered through the entire root and thus, protect the living tissues from inside. The perennial (tar and gum) parts of the grape-vine are also made of wood and are covered with a new layer that is separated from the fresh coat.
The growth in the corner of the roots ends and the layer is formed up to the root. The ends of the roots are turned into a concealed zone and get brown colour. A part of the main nourishing roots of the grapevine is destroyed. Physiological tranquillity does not occur in the root system. When the temperature and moisture of the soil is favourable for grapevine, all of its roots provide moisture from the soil throughout the entire winter period and provide water released from underground and surface parts of the bush.
Thus, the whole living part of root is covered with coating layer on each side after the wooding process. As a result, it is protected from adverse winter conditions and the evaporation decreases. The period of grapevines transmission to tranquillity period in winter is determined according to the following conditions. This period depends largely on the sort, the natural conditions of the area and climatic conditions of the year. It is mainly determined by the rhythm of physiological processes during transition to the development stage.
During the relative tranquillity period, the following morphological and physiological characteristics were observed in the grapevine:
The nutrients in the youngest part of the grapevine flow to the elderly parts - the perennial branches, the surface and the underground parts, and the simple substances turn into complex substances (sugars into starch). As there are complex physiological processes like hydrolysis of starch, hemicellulose and carbohydrates, transpiration, respiration and so on which are lasting during the period of tranquillity, it is considered relative. In addition, the "secret" growth in the roots, especially the embryonic development in the blossoms is completed. According to I.N.Konday, the longest tranquillity in the wintering blossoms is in Bulgarian, Senso, Rkasiteli, Cabernet Sauvignon sorts, and short tranquillity is in Husseini, Ag kishmishi, Fetyaska, Aligote and other sorts. Depending on the variety, the physiological tranquillity lasts 60-75 days.
Swelling of the eyeballs begins with the growth of the tissues around various blossoms and ophthalmic cells and at the same time the strengthening of the respiratory tract. The flow of water to the blossoms raises their life activity. During this process, the amount of height stimulants in the blossoms, as well as the activity of the enzymes and hormones increases and thirst is grapevine occurs.
In the autumn and winter, it is possible to observe the water absorption of the roots in low humid air. This occurs as a result of reverse pressure caused by tissue inside the root and mainly the branches of wooden pipes. At the end of the summer season, the amount of water used by grapevine for transpiration is greater than the amount of water it receives from the soil, and consequently, the opposite pressure occurs.
The following agrotechnical measures should be applied during relative tranquillity of the grapevine (R.Mammadov, C. Suleymanov, 1978).
- After harvesting in the irrigated areas, when the 1st area is ploughed, the 2nd should be watered (frost water), and after the pruning the grapevine, it should be irrigated for the third time. In the winter months it is good to collect snow around the grapevine, softening the skin, etc. in dryland areas.
- Repair and cleaning of main and additional pits
- Repair of espaliers
- Repair of vineyards (elimination of rareness)
- Ploughing of the soil (rows), splitting of the rows of plants
- Dandruff of the shrubs of grapevine (depending on the soil-climate conditions, cutting the grapevine is conducted in different periods of the time).
- Supply of planting material.
- Burial and opening of the grapevine in the areas with a temperature of more than 15 degrees Celcius.
- Preventive measures against diseases and pests.
Vegetation cycle. This period is conditionally divided into 6 vegetative phases:
• From the movement of the juice (whitening of grapevine) to the opening of the blossoms; 2) from the opening of blossoms to flowering; 3) flowering; 4) from the formation of the wild grape until its becoming to grow; 5) From the beginning of the growing of grapes until their full (physiological) growth; 6) from the full growth until the fall of the leaves.
The first phase. The beginning of the juice movement significantly depends on the function of the root system of grapes, environmental factors, in particular the air and soil temperature, etc. factors. The low temperature of the air during the start of the juice movement slows down the course of this phase. The juice movement phase is one of the most controversial periods in the formation of the grape generative organs of grape plant. During this period, along with the development of blossoms, the process of differentiation of flowers is being restored. Inappropriate air flow during this process causes reduction of flower elements and flower tentacula is transformed into intermediate forms or completely turned into tentacula
This phase in the grapevine starts with a strong juice movement. Thanks to the quick absorption of water by root system water moves through the root and xilema pipes and begins to flow from the cross section, as well as broken and damaged part of the grapevine. Juice flow is quickly seen from new damaged parts. Therefore, when it is necessary to indicate the beginning of this phase, the damage should be updated each time when observing the selected grapevines in order to conduct observation Depending on the meteorological conditions and sorts, an ordinary grapevine in the whitening phase dissolves 1,5-5 l juice.
Normal developed grapevine’s root system can create atmospheric pressure of 1.5 and more. The juice is rapidly released from the grapevine so that it can be seen with the usual lens. Recently, it has been identified that the speed of movement of water and nutrients in the grapevines is different and very large. Thus, the assimilator moves at roots up to 0.7-1.5 m per hour. Mineral substances rises at 2-4 m above an hour. Water flows at a speed of 14 meters per hour. Mineral compounds are reduced to the organic phase in the roots. The active activity of the stem cells forms the movement of juice. The life activity of the root begins with the formation of absorbing cords in the absorbent zone (R.Mammadov, C. Suleymanov, 1978).
The movement of juice depends largely on the life activity of the root system and the complex environmental conditions. The flow of juice is slowed down due to lack of temperature in early summer.
It has been identified that the temperature of the soil has a great impact on the beginning of the movement of the juice in the grapevine. So, if the solid spring frost will be in the grapevine while rapid whitening process, then the corner part of the grapevine will be covered with frost. This will show the continuation of juice movement started despite the zero degree of temperature on the Earth surface. At the top of the soil, the temperature is relatively high compared to the lower layers, and whitening in the sorts closely placed to the upper root surface of the soil begins rapidly. Whitening begins even in January On the quickly warmed soils (e.g. sandy), including the southern slopes of hot soils.
The juice movements in grape varieties start at temperatures of 8-9 ° C. When the soil temperature reaches 7-10 ° C on the layer at the main part of the grape root system (at a depth of 50 cm), the juice moves rapidly. The beginning of the juice movement on the varieties also depends on the characteristics of the sorts included. If the average temperature is 8 ° C during the period from the juice movement to the opening of the blossoms, this phase lasts for 43 days. If the average air temperature rises to 1 ° C, a shortening of about 4 days is observed in this period.
By studying the dynamics of whitening (by measuring the amount of juice flowing) it became clear that at first the juice was weak and then faster and eventually declined sharply.
The decrease in the flow of the juice near the end of the phase and the appearance of the leaf surface are explained by the acceleration of transpiration rise. In the drought years, the flow of the juice is very small, and sometimes it never happens.
In addition, if the grapevine is cut during the juice movement period, then the juice will flow more.
In the whitening period of the grapevine, plastic ingredients go from roots to hives, trunk, haustorium and finally to blossoms.
In the immediate vicinity of this phase life activity in the grapevine is so accelerating that annual trunks and two-trimester organs lose in some scale its resistance to frost. In the meantime, as the grapevine is elastic, it is easy to do dry sealing and strokes. Near the end of the phase, the eye pupils inflate and gradually lose their resistance to frost.
The first phase continues until the eyes open. The duration of this phase depends largely on the temperature of the air. The sooner the soil becomes hot and the sooner the eyes start to open, the phase will so long lasting.
It turns out clear that the period of whitening varies not only in different regions and in the same place in different years.
The cut of grapevine in spring delays the opening of blossom for 6-12 days. This delay protects the grapevine from the frost occurring in spring. Therefore, in areas with very cold winter months, it is recommended to cut the grapevine only in spring.
The following agrotechnical measures should be applied in the first phase.
- Providing organic and mineral fertilizers (if not falling under ploughing in autumn);
- Development of rows or ploughing (at a depth of 18-20 cm);
- Finishing of dry cutting in the grapevine;
- Dry connection;
- Soil softening and cutting the dew collecting roots (if this is not the case in autumn).
Second phase. This phase begins with the opening of the eyes. Firstly, the eyelids gradually grow in their size (inflatable), sprouted and trunk begins to appear in the form of a semi-hemisphere covered with dense yellow or brown hairs which are growing, and then cracks the curtain of the dense hairs and exits barefoot. From this time it is considered as the opening of the eyes, which is considered to be one of the crucial times in the life of the grapevine. Because at that time the flower group's differentiation and the rapid formation process of blossoms are going on. During this period, there should be better conditions for the development of the grapevine.
The opening time of the eyes depends on the climatic conditions of the year and the sort, as well as on the bush and eyes.
The swelling of the eyes is explained with the swelling of the cells of the blossoms and the swelling of the cells of seeds close to it. The momentum is characterized by increased breathing in the blossom. The majority of carbohydrates in the eyes slightly slow down their opening and the majority of water accelerates their development.
Opening also depends on the embryonic development of the blossom of the eyes. The stronger the embryonic development, the sooner the eye opens. Spare blossoms are usually delayed in opening, while the sleeping blossoms open too late or they will not open during vegetation period.
Late opening of the eyes is of great importance in frost-threatening places. In the winter, by collecting snow at the bottom of the grapevine, whitening its entire body and delaying the pruning, and so on. Measures can slow the opening of eyes.
At this stage, great morphological and physiological changes are occurring in the grapevine. After the opening of the blossoms, the trunks grow and the strong and rapid growth of the trunks, leaves, flower pellets, tentacula and chickpeas is observed. The daily growth of the trunk increase reaches a maximum of 6-8 cm, sometimes 10 cm at the end of the phase.
Complex factors that influence the growth of trunk and its parts are temperature, humidity, mineral nutrients, and water from the root system and so on.
The plant creates all its organs at the expense of spare nutrients contained in roots and trunks, and feels the need for these substances.
Near the beginning of the second phase, the roots begin to grow into their own growth cycle, there is an absorption zone at the end of the long roots and very small roots are branched. Their number is growing much closer to the end of the phase.
The following biological phases are important for agrotechnics during the second phase.
The appearance of the first flower ball shows the start of the cutting the trunks. If instead of a flower ball, tentacula appears, it shows that trunk will not be fertile.
The reach of trunks up to 45-55 cm determines the timing of the first green binding.
When the blossoms are opened, the growth and development of the trunks go on, and when the length of the trunks reaches 22-32 cm, the flowering is clearly visible. From the opening of the blossoms to the beginning of flowering, important physiological, organogenic processes occur in the grapevines, and some agro-technical care works should be timely and optimally carried out. There is a positive impact on productivity in this period. At this time, the grapevines are not fertile and must be cleaned from trunks and optimally loaded. Therefore, during this period, two times cultivation and stripping should be performed in the ranges. The harami trunks are shaved twice. For the first time, the cutting is made in the stamp and perennial branches (when its length reaches 5-7 cm), and the second time, when the productive and unproductive trunks are selected. Additional fertilizer should be given 10-12 days before flowering. At the beginning of flowering the ends of the trunks should be removed.
Twice green binding and protection against mildiu and oidium diseases should be conducted in the vineyards depending on the greenness of bushes.
The first connection of trunks reaching 35-50 cm in diameter and developing vertically in the grapevines to the wires should be implemented. In order to prevent disease and pest development with the purpose of vegetative mass increase in grapevines, the first preventive measures should be carried out. 10-12 days before flowering the additional fertilizers should be given to the plants, however the ends of the trunks should be cut from the beginning of the flowering period.
A period from blossoming until the start of flowering is the main and important period of the active life function of annual biological cycle of grape plant. Nearly 60% of vegetative organs are formed in the grapevine during this period, trunks, tentacula, leaves, flowers develop, postembryonic development of flower is completed, micro and macrosporogenesis process is quickly developing in flowers.
The second phase lasts until flowering, i.e. nearly until the end of May and the beginning of June.
Third phase. This phase covers the period from the beginning of flowering until the appearance of flowers and is registered from the time when flower crowns fall down from the flower.
The beginning of flowering of this or that sort is closely related to the opening of the eyes, so that more quickly the eyes open, more quickly the flowering begins so quickly. The start of flowering is mainly due to the temperature of the air. Thus, the amount of active temperature before opening of eyes until the flowering should be approximately up to 380 ° C. This usually determines the start of the flowering. For example, because the flower balls in the pressed parts are close to the ground, they take a lot of heat and quickly blossom. Flowering on the southern slopes and hot soils begins quickly, intensifies and ends very soon.
The flowering dynamics has been studied in detail. In favourable conditions, the bushes are well-flourishing: first, separate branches and separate flower balls on them open, and then the flowering rate in three to four days reaches about 15-20%, afterwards, flowering lasts quickly during 2-3 days, and the total flowering becomes 60 -75%. The rest of the flowering is gradual and prolonged. In general, the flowering of a sort and ending of the flowering in the vineyard takes up to 8-14 days depending on whether the condition is favourable or not. Flowering in different sorts, soil-climatic conditions continues up to 12-22 days. The flowering is basically completed at 11 a.m. By studying the flowering dynamics in a flower ball, it became clear that the blossom flow in a flower ball corresponds to the course of the flowering of separate bushes and all vineyards. A flower ball blossom and ends blossoming on average about 4-9 days. Perennial observations show that the flower ball which has a lot of blossoms, flourishes more rapidly than the flower balls that have fewer blossoms. In contrast, flowering in flower balls, which start flowering too late and the flowering continues rapidly and for a short period. For example, if the flowering lasts 9 days in flower balls that begin flowering early, this period will take 4-5 days if it starts 6 days later. Flowering dynamics on the hours of the day in a flower ball is common, but differs in the following features. Flowering begins with the opening of separate blossoms at 6-7 in the morning. By 9 o'clock, the number of blossoms is growing rapidly and at about 11 o'clock it sharply decreases, afterwards the flowering gradually stops until the next day. Flowering starts a bit earlier the next day, the number of flowers grows rapidly, and the maximum flowering time is rapidly growing, but the flow rate is gradually decreasing. Therefore, flowering time lasts a bit longer (R.Mammadov, C. Suleymanov, 1978).
Complex external conditions have a significant effect on mass flowering and fertilization.
Flowering is normal in the first decade of June when the average temperature is 17-18 ° C in mild-warm climates. The best temperature for flowering is 25-35 ° C, where flowering and fertilization are rapidly lasting, and vines are well developed. If the average air temperature in the flowering period is 10-13 ° C, the blossom dust does not grow and when the temperature is 15-16 ° C, though the dusting will continue in the flowers, the fertilization process is poor. As a result, the flowers in the grapevines are poured over too much, and most vines remain prone to the development of parthenocarpia. Another factor affecting flowering is the moisture rate of the soil. Flowering is normal when the soil moisture rate is 80-85%. The blossoms open up to 5% during the initial stage of flowering, 60-70% - mass blooming and 25-30% at the end.
Due to the high humidity of the soil and the air, the fluid in the mouth of the leaf dent is washed and the blossom dust is not well clinging. Such cases occur in some greenhouses. When the strong wind blows, the mouth of the leaf dent dries up and stamen causes a malnutrition of the dust.
If the rain occurs at low temperatures, flowering time prevents cross-pollination of female-type flowers.
Once the flowers blossom, the stamen dust will not be able to sustain their life activity for a long time, because after the flowering, the fertility strength of the dust decreases dramatically. The duration of the female acceptance of dust is 4-6 days. The fermentation continues up to one day in favourable conditions. After the fermentation finishes, the mouth of the dent gets brown colour. Thus, after a day of mass flowering, the pistil of most flowers becomes brown. If fertilization does not take place and if the air is in normal moisture, then a drop of water (juice) in the mouth of the pistil will appear, which indicates that the fermentation is not successful.
In the third phase, the growth rate of the trunks is maximized and begins to decline, but the daily increase of the trunks, leaves and chickpeas continues.
While studying the blossoming features of the local grape sorts in the conditions of Absheron, it was determined that the flowering starts after the 12th internode mainly appears in the trunks of the grapevines of some grape sorts. The flowering starts when in some sorts the number of trunks is 13, or 14.
As the leaf does not appear in the grapevine during this period, the photosynthesis process does not reach its maximum, the reserve substances and assimilates are spent on the structure of the organs of the grapevine, especially for the blooming.
The following biological phases can be mentioned for agrotechnics during the third phase.
All agromeasures, especially irrigation, soil cultivation, etc. should be stopped during the flowering period. This is because during this time the temperature drops in the vineyard and weakens the fertilization process. These works should be planned so that they do not fall into flowering time. Such activities are more important for places where the climate is cold and cool in spring. There is no need to apply these agrotechnical measures in the flowering period in the regions, where the temperature is above 18-20 ° C (R.Mammadov, C. Suleymanov, 1978).
The flowering phase is an important period in obtaining high yields from vineyards. During the best flowering process, it is necessary to control the fermentation, the formation of grapes in the clusters and their normal growth.
One need to check the temperature of the first wire of the espaliers in the vineyards. If the average temperature is below 15 ° C, it should be avoided that it will produce a bad result, as stamen dusts are so badly progressed and sterilized in such rates and temperatures. Therefore, special observations should be made to verify the fertility of the dust from the beginning of flowering.
As it is known, there are also functional pistil (Ag shani, Chaush, Nimreng, Tavkveri, Madlen ancevin, khatini, Girmizi seabi, Arna-qrna, Adreuli tetra, Ala shani, Katta-Kurgan, etc.) and Hermofrodit flower-type (Gara shani, Agadayi, Bayanshire, Kardinal, Khindoqni, Medrese, Chehrayi tayfi, Hemeshere, Azeri, Moldova, Fetyaska, Cabernet Sauvignon, Saperavi, Kardinal, etc.) grape varieties that are planted and cultivated in the vineyards of our republic. Self- and cross-pollination is not enough to achieve a stable, high quality product from those varieties. Because the floral dust of grape sorts with functional pistil flower type is sterile, it is deprived of the ability to ferment the pistil. Hermofrodit flower-type grape varieties produce fewer and lower-quality crops during the years when there are no favourable climatic conditions and the deficiencies observed in flower and rose and ginesey.
In order to achieve stable, high productivity every year, artificial and additional pollination operations in grape varieties are one of the important agro-technical measures. Therefore, additional and artificial purification of functional pistil and hermofroditic floral grape varieties are desirable in order to increase productivity and product quality of the vineyards.
The third phase normally lasts within a two-ten-day period (end of May, early June) in a moderate – hot climate.
The fourth phase. This phase covers the period from the formation of unripe grapes to the beginning of their growth. The process of transformation of fertilized eggs into grapes after flowering begins at the end of the formation of the trunks with the ovulation of the eggs, the loss of mouth and columns. In the period from the formation of the cellar to complete maturation, complicated physiological and biochemical processes are going on inside it (R.Mammadov, C. Suleymanov, 1978).
In green grapes, if initially sugar levels are low, vaccine and general acidity are high. If the ripeness begins, the amount of complex ethyl, pigment substances and sugar rises and the intensity changes. At the exact growth of the grape, the amount of glucose and fructose is equal, their quantity remains constant, and the sugar solidity increases because of the evaporation of the water.
Intensive growth of trunk is gradually decreasing, bending as it exits in the previous phases occurs, and becomes thinner at the end of the phase, as well as the leaves and tendril are too small. The blossoms in the lower hives are formed through their embryonic development. Meanwhile, a strong flower ball base is formed. For example, the beginning of flower balls in Khalili grape sort in Ganja-Gazakh region condition starts on May 17 and continues until June 16. Tabriz sort will last from May 22 to August 11, and Bayanshir from May 21 to August 21. Therefore, it is necessary to create favourable conditions for the normal growth of the trunk and the increase of the leaves' assimilation from the beginning of this phase. Close to the end of the phase, the flower group creations begin to form in almost the most intense trunk eyes. Depending on the environmental conditions, the times shown may vary.
In this phase, the trunks are rapidly thickened on the basis of the intensive development of the kambi layer.
The leaves also grow along with the trunks. The lower leaves become older, thickening and roughing. The leaf veins attract parenchymuses, resulting in the leaf brittle, obliquid, or obtuse. At the end of the phase, the growth in the leaves located in the middle part of the trunk stops. They form large surfaces (mass), strengthen the process of photosynthesis, which ensures the collection of assimilants in trunks and branches. The root system boosts nutrients in this phase strongly.
Anatomical and physiological processes are intensifying in the lower parts of the trunk during the end of the phase and preparation for winter is ongoing.
The process of wood decomposition is mainly due to the thickening of the cell membrane. The thickening of the particles separated from cells occurs due to: lignin, hemicellulose, mineral substances, etc. Meanwhile, water decreases in the cellular, protoplasm and other parts of the cell: the concentration of cellular juice is significantly increased (as a result of increased osmosis pressure) and forms various resistance items.
This process is related to the increase in starch in the cell: there is a direct dependence among these.
Temperature has a significant effect on the growth of the trunk: the higher the temperature, the more quickly the growth takes place. Too much moisture is affected oppositely, i.e., it worsens growing and also delays it.
Mineral nutrients also affect the maturity process, the majority of nitrogen slows it down, and most of the potassium accelerates it.
The grapes that appear at the beginning of the fourth phase grow in size and get darker-green colour from the increase in chlorophyll.
During the fourth phase, chlorophyll is gradually accumulated in protein molecules and inner tissues around the body. Typically, part of the eggs and grapes are almost not grown and the growth stops rapidly, such grapes become yellowish-green and begin pouring when they are 3-4 mm long. This leads to the fall of eggs and grapes and determines the plurality or low density of the cluster. As a result of their fall, unusual stiffness occurs in cluster. This process is called the fall of flowers (the second wave of flower fall). The second wave of spillage is of great importance in determining the product. Therefore, at the beginning of the phase, the degree of fall of the egg and grapes should be determined. In this regard, it is important to determine the number of remaining grapes. Fall of flowers, in turn, affects productivity negatively. Therefore, it is expedient for the vineyards to be irrigated and given organic fertilizers after flowering ends. Also during this period, green operations in the grapevines should be carried out, closure, if necessary, measures on rarefying grapes and clusters, active fight against diseases and pests should be carried out.
When the diameter of the remaining grapes reaches 5 mm, the pouring stops and they begin to grow at a very fast pace. At first, they grow rapidly, reaching maximum speed in the middle of the phase, and then their daily growth begins to decline, and growth is close to the end of the phase. There is also a great role of moisture (rain, high air humidity, etc.) along with the temperature for growing of grapes. As the grapes grow, they are collected in the parenchyma underneath the epidermis, mixing with chlorophyll, protein and tannin in equal amounts in paranxim. The amount of water in the grape increases until the end of the phase.
Grapes assimilates up to one-fifth of carbon emissions spent for their growth and respiration. The amount of mouth in the small grape is small. Therefore, as they grow, the mouth will also grow on the surface per its unit of measure. When the grapes reach normal size, the mouth is completely deformed. They also disappear in the stalk. The mouth only stays on the pawl of the stalk and the zoospors of mildiu mushroom will enter and spread mildiu disease. As there is no mouth in the shell of the grape it cannot pass. This period is the middle of the fourth phase. Carbon assimilation is weakened in the deformed mouth. In this regard, as the grapes grow, the starch does not decline after the mouth is diminished. Since then, the number of chlorophyll in the grapes has also declined. Near the end of the phase, the amount of tannin is reduced.
At the beginning of the phase, only in 1 kg unripe there will be 5-6 g sugar, and close to the end of the phase, the sugar reaches 10-15 g. At the beginning of the phase, almost half of the grape is acidic (20-30q in 1 kg). As the grapes grow, acidity increases (30-40 g per 1 kg) and the acidity, which is in the second half of the phase, remains in this state until the end of the phase.
The most important biological steps for agro-technical measures in the fourth phase are:
- Approximately 1.5 months after the phases begin, the loss of mouth in the grapes and the ability of disease to pass on the pill, determine the method and timing of the fight against mildiu disease. The thinness of the grape shells and seeds require that the fight against diseases be very careful. The decline of the growth rate during this phase and the increase in the leaf mass in this regard determine the fight against mildiu disease.
- The growth of the trunks and the development of the large leaf mass during this period requires agrotechnical measures to ensure the normal collection of assimilators, the growth of the trunks, and the rapid development of the grapes. Correctly and timely, the 3rd green lever ensures normal physiological processes of the bush.
- It is important to follow the appropriate agrotechnical measures in order to ensure the growth and nutrition of the trun in the grapevine as well as the growth of the grapes during the foundation of the floral group in the blossoms.
- The appearance of the wax layer in the shell of the grape near the end of the phases increases its resistance to rot.
The fourth phase usually takes about a month or two, usually after the second half of June, in a temperate-warm climate. The fourth phase of the various varieties covers a different period, so the end of this phase continues from the second half of July to the first half of September, depending on the type, the weather, the nature of the place.
During the fourth phase, the following works are generally carried out in the vineyard: spraying and pollination against mildiu and odium diseases; soil softening and cultivation in the rows; c]the second closure of trunks (at the beginning of the phase and at the end of the phase (end of the phase). The corners of the trunks are cut at the end of July, beginning of August – during the stoppage time of growth in trunks, i.e. those kept for future harvest.
The fifth phase. The maturity of grapes shows the beginning of the fifth phase. It is defined as per the following morphological signs: the grapes become soft (when touching with hand, you can feel it soften), the specific sort colour is obtained in the coloured sorts, greenness of grapes disappears in white sorts, they become light, bright and transparent. The beginning of this phase is mainly related to the temperature conditions and introduction of nutrients to the grapes. The higher the temperature, the more nutrients are introduced into grapes, more quickly the phase will start. It can delay the majority of moisture (R.Mammadov, C. Suleymanov, 1978).
There are a number of changes in the morphological and physiological symptoms of the bush during the phase.
Thus, the growth rate of the trunks decreases, finally, the end of the trunk completely stops and rebuilds. The wood process in trunks goes rapidly. Growth in the 5th – 7th clusters of trunk starting from the base goes slowly and equally (10-15 days), then it grows for 1-2, 2-3 days in the 8th-10th clusters. This leap in the dynamics of growth was observed in most grape varieties. Chickpeas, tentaculas, leaves also stop growth. They also become old and differ from the leaves that form in the 1st phase. Flower ball differentiation ends in the blossoms wintering at the bottom of trunks. Leaf surface development is at a high level and the amount of assimilants is maximized. Compared to the fourth phase, there is a large number of assimilants required here. So, assimilants are required not only for the separation of spare nutrients, but also the growth of the wood, the growth of the cluster, etc. and also the collection of sugar in the grape in this phase. At the beginning of the phase, grapes and clusters began to grow again, firstm slowly, then quickly and reaching their maximum growth level, then completely stops until its physiological maturity period. Humidity change – weakening prevents a quick growth of grape and destroys the growth cycle. The stem of the trunk varies slightly and slightly from the grape, depending on the type. Although sugar in the grape gradually increases at the end of the fourth phase, it starts to rise rapidly from the beginning of the fifth phase. At the beginning of the phase, the amount of fructose does not increase, but in the middle the glucose is much higher, but the amount of both is equal close to the end of the phase. The mature grape contains sucrose besides glucose and fructose. American varieties contain 0.5%, European varieties have 0.5-1% sucrose. At the end of the fourth phase and at the beginning of the fifth phase, acidity gradually increases, then suddenly decreases. The pH increases slightly, and the increase is about 0.3-0.5%. Reduction of acidity due to the growing of grapes is due to the burning of its acid in the respiratory process due to the opinions in grape making and winemaking , but new studies show that organic matter in the grape is reduced in the acid exchange process. In the juice of the grape, sumchs are gradually diminishing. The colorants dissolved in the cellulose juice are increasingly concentrated, mainly in the cellular shell. The darker the colour of the grape, the more these substances are found in the peripheral cell layer of the shell (top). However, in several varieties (Madrasah, Saperavi, etc.) colorants also exist in the peripheral cells. The amount of colorants increases in the near end of the phase (R.Mammadov, C. Suleymanov, 1978).
The sixth phase. This phase begins with the moment of physiological growth of the grapes. There are no obvious, apparent signs to determine the phase start. Therefore, the definition of the beginning of the sixth phase is of great economic significance, therefore, the three methods of harvesting are: 1) organoleptic, 2) anatomical, and 3) chemical methods.
In the middle of the phase, the covering layer is formed where the leaf sapling is combined to the trunk. The leaves are increasingly aging in parallel. The amount of potassium and phosphorus decreases rapidly and the amount of calcium increases. Increasing the amount of calcium affects the autumn colour of the leaves. Watching the process of the growth of grapevine, learning how to prepare it for the winter means that the corresponding agrotechnical measures (winter protection of bush in winter, stick supply, etc.) will be taken. The leaves will fall after the covering layer is separated. With the fall of leaves, the sixth phase ends and the winter cycle begins. The area is fed with organic and mineral fertilizers during the sixth phase after harvesting, deep rows are carried out and rows are ploughed. Freezing water is provided, repair work is done and so on.