Azerbaijan is the center of the emergence and formation of the culture of grapes, an ancient focus of viticulture and winemaking. Not only do numerous literary data testify to the age of cultivation of grapes in Azerbaijan, but also the monuments of material culture found in archeological excavations, tools used for growing grapes and preparing wine, pottery with deposits of tartar on the walls, as well as seeds, leaves and some other parts of the grape plant.
Currently, North America, East Asia and Europe are considered the centers of origin of grapes in the world. The countries of Europe, the Republic of Transcaucasia and mainly Azerbaijan, being the most ancient centers of origin, formation and evolution of the grape plant, are rich in valuable local varieties and wild-growing forms of grapes.
Fragments of leaves and grape bones, found during archeological excavations, indicate that grapes appeared on the territory of Azerbaijan in the Tertiary period of the Earth's history, 55 million years ago. The evidence of this is the prints of a leaf of wild grapes on a stone found on the territory of Nakhichevan, in the upper Pliocene of the Araks River. This find relates to the historical period of five hundred thousand years ago. During geological excavations in the eastern part of Bozdag (the territory of the Goy Gel region), fossilized fragments of leaves of wild grapes were found in the deposits formed 1-2 million years ago. In 1962, in the vicinity of the historical monument of Shomutepe, belonging to the V-IV millennium BC, located near the town of Aqstafa, archaeologists have found seeds of cultural grapes that have approximately seven thousand years of history. Near the city of Agdam, near the historical monument of Uzerliktepe, were found seeds and petrified berries of table grapes dating back to 3500 years. On the territory of Ganjachai, in one of the burials belonging to the Bronze Age, in large earthenware jugs for storing wine (kyupah), grape seeds and tartar deposits were found. Kupy with traces of the wine stored in it were also found in Mingechaur, in the graves belonging to the Bronze Age. In the west of the city of Gazakh, in the ancient settlement of Saratepe, during archeological excavations large croups, berries and seeds of grapes were found. Professor A.Negrul, who researched these findings, related to the II millennium BC, established their belonging to the cultural grapes.
One of the ancient monuments of winemaking in Azerbaijan is a large wine storage cask, discovered by YGGummel in 1931 during the excavation of a mound near the Goy Gol region. BB Piotrovsky attributed this finding to the Bronze Age: by the end of the II millennium BC. - the beginning of the first millennium. On the walls of this cuypus were found the bones of grapes and the solidified sediment of the wine. In 1956 in the village of Khar-Khar of the Kedabek district, a crochet and other utensils for storing wine were found. These findings date back to the 16th century.
Discovered during archaeological excavations, old tools used in viticulture testify to the ancient agriculture in Azerbaijan.
A variety of local varieties of grapes (more than 400), created by popular selection and grown for hundreds of years in various regions of Azerbaijan, all kinds of products made from grapes (jam, doshab, vinegar, abgora, zucug, kishmish, raisins, juice, sorbet, wine, alcohol ), serve as a clear proof that the local population has been engaged in wine growing from time immemorial, not spontaneously, but purposefully.
In the works and notes of famous historians, geographers and travelers of the world who lived at different times, there are interesting information about viticulture and winemaking in Azerbaijan. Thus, for example, Herodotus (5th century BC), Pliny (23-79 BC), Strabo (1st century BC - II-III centuries AD, 330-400 years), Abu Dulyafil (X century), Athanasius Nikitin (XI century), Masud Ibn Namdar (XII century), Ehstafiy (XII century), Hamdullah Gazvini (XIII century), Miklouho-Maclay (XIII century), Rashid Ad-Din , Abdurashid Gamivi (XIII century), Marco Polo (XIII-XIV century), Adam Olearius (XVII century), Evliya Chelebi (XVII century), Corneli de Bruijn (XVII-XVIII century), I.I.Shopen (XIX century) , Friedrich Marshal von Bieberstein (XVIII-XIX century) in their notes and memoirs express the opinion that Azerbaijan is one of the ancient centers of origin of grapes. Albanian historian Moses Kalankatuklu, who lived in VII-VIII centuries, in his work "The History of Albania", in the chapter devoted to the invasion of the Khazars in the Caucasus, brings interesting facts about the occupation of local population by viticulture and winemaking in the territory of Azerbaijan in the I century BC. and about the presence here of valuable varieties of grapes.
In the oldest monument of Azerbaijani oral folk art (VII century), dastan "Kitabi Dede Korkut", there are phrases proving that wine cultivation and winemaking already existed in Azerbaijan at that time. So, for example, in the narrative dedicated to the feast of Oguzes, it is written: "In eighty places were placed kyupy, golden glasses. Everybody drank. The feast lasted a long time. Strong wine hit the head of Ulam's son Salar Gazan in the head. "
The great Azerbaijani poet of the 13th century, Nizami Ganjavi, writes in the Iskendername and Seven Beauties poems that Azerbaijan is rich in grapes and other fruits.
Arab historians and geographers Abulfid, Ibn Khavgal, Masudi and Al Mugaddashi give information that during the rule of the Arabs around the Barda, Ganja, and also in other regions of Azerbaijan, there were vineyards. The Arab geographer of the 10th century, Al Mugaddasi, describing the wealth of Azerbaijan, writes: "This region is vast and beautiful. There are a lot of fruits and grapes here. " The Greek scientist Herodotus (5th century BC), the Roman scholar Pliny (23-79 BC), the Greek geographer Strabo (1st century BC - 1st century AD), Roman historian Ammianus Masellin (II-III century AD, 330-400 years) indicate that viticulture played a big role in the life of the country.
One of the feudal rulers of Germany, the duke of Holstein, Frederick III (1616-1659), sent a delegation of ambassadors to the Safavid palace, among them Adam Olearius, who traveled throughout Azerbaijan in 1636-1638. In his essay "Journey to Muscovy and through Muscovy to Persia and back", first published in 1647, Adam Olearius gives very interesting information about Azerbaijan, including grape varieties grown by the local population. The traveler writes that there are a lot of different varieties of grapes in the Safavid state. He points out that the best varieties can be found in Shiraz, Tabriz, Tarum, Ordubad, Shemakha and Astara. The most valuable Adam Olearius considered varieties of grapes Tabrizi and Khalaj and pointed out that in Germany there are no such varieties.
However, because of prohibitions on religion to produce wine and high taxes in viticulture, this industry, compared with other branches of agriculture, began to lag behind in development.
In the written sources of the 14th century it is said that in some places of Azerbaijan the local population is engaged in the preparation of dried grapes, vinegar, abgora, etc. Villagers engaged in viticulture, both to meet their own needs, and for sale, prepared from grapes doshab, turkey-shirin and some other sweets.
All of the above historical facts refer to the time of Khazars, Medes and Albanians residing in Azerbaijan. From these facts it becomes clear that for millennia viticulture has developed as an independent industry.
The Mongol invasion of Azerbaijan played a big role in the development of viticulture. During the reign of the Mongols, to provide the Mongolian army, the local population was subject to a special tax, which included approximately 40 kg of wheat, 20 liters of wine and a certain amount of money.
Hamdulla Gazvini gives interesting information about the fact that cotton, wheat, rice, fruits and grapes were grown in southern Azerbaijan during this period.
In the 15th century, the Shirvan zone of Azerbaijan differed in economic development. Compared to the southern zone of the country, in Shirvan, the development of agriculture was high, the harvest - abundant, and the prices - low. Ammorge Cantarini, who visited Shirvan in 1475, wrote that in the city of Shabran, grain, cotton, rice, grapes, vegetables and fruits are produced in an amount capable of meeting the needs of the local population. The well-known Russian traveler Afanasy Nikitin, visiting Baku, wrote that in the localities around the fortress there is no vegetation, and only in the north of Absheron peninsula there are fruit gardens and vineyards.
The Russian manufacturing industry, developed during the reign of Peter I, needed Azerbaijani raw materials, such as cotton, silk, wool, natural dyes, etc. The famous Dutch traveler Corneli de Bruin, who traveled in 1777 through Shemakha, described the untold wealth of Azerbaijan, its beautiful gardens, excellent wines. The Russian government intended to develop gardening and viticulture in the Caspian regions of Azerbaijan. To this end, fruit gardens and vineyards were laid around Shamakhi and Derbent.
The inscriptions made on the walls of the Meschida in the village of Venend of the Nakhichevan region contain valuable information about the economic life of the country in the thirties of the 13th century. The inscriptions read: "In those years the crops were low. 1 man. wheat cost 400 dinars, rice 800, oil 2800, honey 3200, grape juice (doshab) 2400, cheese 1600, dried grapes 2400, oats 350, apricots 80, garlic 1200, cotton 400, seeds of watermelon - 500 dinars ".
According to A. Kalantar (1895), in 1895 there were 3331.5 hectares of fruit-bearing vineyards in Baku province. The grapes grown here were mostly fresh, both within the province of Baku and in neighboring provinces. It also received wine and alcohol. GG Danilbekov (1895) writes that from every tithe (1,082 hectares) of vineyards in Cuba, 500 poods of grapes were collected. Each year, up to 300 buckets of wine were produced. At the end of the 19th century, the regions with highly developed viticulture and winemaking were also considered the Geokchay, Shemakha and Irevan (Nakhichevan) provinces, where vineyards cultivated dining, technical and kishmish grape varieties with white, black, red, pink and purple berries (Khardzhi, Askeri, Miskali, Achabash, Gesendai, Khalili, Ag Saabi, Rishbaba, Chilal, Kishmishi, Ordusu, Tulkyuguyrugu, Galyngabyg, Shirshira, Shekerbur, Huseyni, Mermeri, Bendi, Taifi (Aldere), Tabarza, Shafei, Molla Ahmedi, Shahangir, Garadamag , Ker Imgendi, Amiri, Shirai, Shirvanshahi, Keciemjegi, Khazri, Kyzyl raisins, Chilli raisins, At raisins, Beylaganis, Han raisins, Shekeri, Devegusi, Agri, Mahmudabi, Hungi, Elvan, Sysag, etc.).
German colonists, who settled in Azerbaijan at the beginning of the XIX century, played a significant role in the development of viticulture and winemaking. The development of this industry at the industrial level in the period from the late XIX - early XX century is associated with the Germans, namely with the brothers Forer and Christian Hummel.
In eastern Azerbaijan, under the leadership of Agriev, Dzhakumov, Shustov, large grapes processing firms operated. According to the Transcaucasian Statistical Office, in 1913 there were 26.5 thousand hectares of vineyards in the territory of 15 administrative regions of Azerbaijan. During the First World War, the total area of the vineyards and the yield of grapes fell sharply. Subsequently, large farms were nationalized and state trusts for the production of wine and alcohol were created on their basis: Azvin, in Karavin, in Nakhichevan - Nakhvin. The bankrupt peasant farms united in the wine cooperatives "Concordia", "Bell", "Loza", "Karvinkoop", "Kah". These associations laid the foundation for the future development of viticulture and winemaking in Azerbaijan.
Restructuring of agriculture in Azerbaijan gave impetus to the development of viticulture and winemaking. Vine-growers' cooperatives of peasants were united in collective farms, and wineries were transferred to state ownership.
The Department of Viticulture and Wine-making at the Agriculture Department of the Azerbaijan Industrial Institute (now the Academy of Petroleum Chemistry) played an important role in the training of highly qualified personnel for this branch.
In 1924, the production of grapes in Azerbaijan reached 89.3 thousand tons, and the production of wine - 5.9 thousand decaliters.
In 1929 the Azerbaijan Agricultural Institute (present Azerbaijan State Agrarian University), and in 1930-1931 the Ganja Experimental Station of Viticulture and Wine-making started studying aboriginal varieties of grapes in various regions of the republic. During this period about 80 indigenous dishes and technical varieties of grapes were found in Agdam, Ganja and Apsheron.
The development of collectivization and the strengthening of the material and technical basis of the farms in the first and second five-year plan provided an opportunity to lay new vineyards in the republic. By 1940, the total area of grape plantations in Azerbaijan was 33,000 hectares. The condition of the vineyards improved, and the yield of grapes increased significantly. In 1940-1941 the share of the vineyards in Azerbaijan was 11.5% of the total area of vineyards in the former Soviet Union.
During the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945), a crisis broke out in the viticulture industry of Azerbaijan. The reduction of labor resources, the reduction of the level of mechanization of agricultural work, the weakening of the provision of vineyards with mineral fertilizers and the means for combating diseases and pests led to a sharp deterioration in the state of vineyards. By 1947, the total area of vineyards in Azerbaijan decreased to 21.4 thousand hectares. A small number of varieties in the vineyards prevented the all-round development of this industry in that period. Taking into account this fact, since 1945, for the purpose of discovering and introducing aboriginal varieties of grapes into the economy, expeditions were organized in various zones of our republic, as a result of which more than 250 varieties of grapes were identified and included in the collection.
1954 became a turning point in the history of viticulture development in the republic. Since that time, the area of vineyards and the volume of production of grapes began to increase from year to year. New administrative structures for viticulture and winemaking were organized in Garabagh-Mil, Kuba-Khachmas and Lenkoran-Jalilabad zones of Azerbaijan.
Given the emergence of ample opportunities for the development of viticulture in the regions of the country, the country's leadership has adopted a number of important decrees on the expansion of areas under crops. The initiative of farms was approved in 1957-1965 to expand the area of planting.
In accordance with these regulations, in the first year of the Seven-Year Plan, vine-growing enterprises laid down 17 thousand hectares of new vineyards. At the end of 1958, the total area of vineyards in the republic was brought to 40 thousand hectares, and in 1960 - to 48 thousand hectares. The share of the viticulture and winemaking industry in the former Soviet Union was 10% for plantations, 5% for grapes, 6% for wine production (1965).
In accordance with the subsequent decisions of the Azerbaijani government (1958, 1962, 1967), important measures were taken in the republic to expand the areas of vineyards, organize new state farms, build wineries, refrigerators, etc. At the factories of Azerbaijan, more than 60 brands of wines were produced, incl. 17 brands of dry wines (Bayan, Alsherab, Sadylly, Madrasa, Novruzlu, Shamkhor, Karakend), 20 brands of strong dessert wines such as port wine (Akstafa, Alabashli, Agdam, Kyzyl Sherbet, Karaeri, Karachanak, Mil, Goytepe, Karabakh, Shahbuz , Azerbaijan, Shemakha, Kurdamir) and 6 brands of cognacs (Goy-gol, 3 stars, 4 stars, 5 stars, Baku, Jubilee). Thanks to a unique bouquet and unsurpassed quality, Azerbaijani wines gained wide popularity. Since 1964, at the international exhibitions and tastings, the wines of Azerbaijan have repeatedly received high awards. So, according to the data of 1967, Azerbaijani vintage dessert and table wines, cognacs and champagne won 37 medals, including. 13 gold pieces.
In 1965, the volume of production of wine materials reached 10 million decaliters. In 1966 there were 24 plants for primary processing of grapes in the republic, 11 of which were located on the territory of specialized wine-growing farms.
The great leader of the Azerbaijani people Heydar Aliyev, who highly appreciated the importance of viticulture for the economy of Azerbaijan, has been paying special attention to the development of viticulture and winemaking since 1969. Thanks to the decrees and decrees adopted by him, the areas of vineyards in the republic have expanded considerably, and the production of grapes has increased.
In order to manage the viticulture and winemaking industry, on the personal initiative of Heydar Aliyev in 1970, the State Committee for Viticulture and Wine-making was established in the Republic of Azerbaijan. To ensure the development of this industry on scientific bases, by the decision of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Azerbaijan dated August 12, 1976, at number 269, the Azerbaijan Scientific Research Institute of Viticulture and Wine-making was organized. In order to introduce the achievements of science into production, experimental stations and strong points in Nakhichevan AR, Ganja city, Shemakha and Jalilabad districts of the republic were submitted to the subordination of this institute.
In order to provide the wine industry with engineers-technologists, mechanical engineers and other qualified personnel, at the insistence of Heydar Aliyev in 1981 the government of the former Soviet Union issued a decree on the establishment of the Azerbaijan Technological Institute in Ganja.
The viticulture industry in Azerbaijan reached its peak in its development, the highest growth, precisely in the days of Heydar Aliyev's leadership (in 1969-1982). During this period, the area of vineyards expanded from year to year, yields increased and the quality of grapes improved. The main result of care and attention given by Heydar Aliyev to the viticulture industry, the Azerbaijani people saw the fruits of his tireless labor in 1984. That year the total area of vineyards in the republic reached 286 thousand hectares, the production of grapes - 2.12 million tons, the yield per hectare - 100 centners.
The laying of new vineyards with various grape varieties in individual wine-growing farms of Azerbaijan has become widespread. It should be noted that due to the disproportionate correlation between table and technical varieties on existing vineyards, it was planned to expand the planting of local varieties of grapes, which are distinguished by high quality indicators.
The successful implementation of the planned activities for the development of viticulture contributed to the emergence of the Republic of Azerbaijan at one of the first places in the former Soviet Union and enabled the most efficient use of natural and economic resources to raise the level of production of high-quality table grapes and increase the production of wine. Since 1970, the state of existing vineyards has been constantly improving in the republic, and new vineyards have been laid.
With the purpose of promptly eliminating the problems that arose in the viticulture industry, a number of urgent tasks were planned under the direct leadership of Heydar Aliyev. The Bureau of the Central Committee was asked the question "Serious deficiencies in the development of viticulture and measures to ensure the solution of tasks aimed at increasing the production of grapes and wine in the republic." As a result of the successful implementation of these measures, the situation in the viticulture industry has improved significantly. In 1970, 672 farms were engaged in the cultivation of grapes in Azerbaijan, including 244 specialized vineyard sovkhozes. At that time, extensive research work was carried out in the field of viticulture. In order to ensure the intensive development of viticulture and winemaking in Azerbaijan, 10 natural and economic zones were identified that are promising for this sector, in which large vineyard sovkhozes and agro-industrial complexes later operated.
In 1973, the harvest of grapes amounted to 397 thousand tons, which was 114 thousand tons more than in 1972 and 186 thousand tons more than in 1971. Heydar Aliyev, explaining the possibility of raising the level of production only through intensification, demanded from the relevant organizations and agricultural bodies, from each kolkhoz and sovkhoz, the implementation of specific activities to achieve the intended goal.
If in 1970 the total area of vineyards in the republic was 121.6 thousand hectares, in 1975 it reached 178.1 thousand hectares. In comparison with 1970, in 1975 the production of grapes increased 2 times, ie, it increased from 351.7 thousand tons to 706.2 thousand tons. Yield per hectare increased from 46.8 c / ha to 65.1 c / ha.
In 1970-1980 viticulture in the republic began to develop at high rates. In this period 180 thousand hectares of new vineyards were laid. The total area of the vineyards has reached 270 thousand hectares. Along with the viticulture industry, its processing industry also developed - winemaking.
In 1980-1985, 85.3% of industrial vineyards in the republic were technical grape varieties, 14.7% - canteens.
Decree of the KP and the Council of Ministers of the former Soviet Union of February 29, 1979 "On Measures for the Specialization of Agricultural Production and the Development of Viticulture and Wine-Making in Azerbaijan" put grandiose tasks on the agenda. By this resolution it was envisaged to increase the production of grapes in the republic in 1990 to 2.5-3.0 million tons.
In 1980-1984, the production of grapes in the republic was brought to 1.7-2.1 million tons, the yield per hectare reached 70-100 centners. In 1984, the total area of the vineyards was 284.1 thousand hectares, the harvesting of grapes - 2,126 thousand tons, the yield per hectare, reaching the highest level, was 99.2 centners. According to the volume of production of grapes, Azerbaijan came out on top in the former Soviet Union.
Naturally, the development of viticulture is impossible without the presence of varieties of grapes. During the intensive development of viticulture, 69.1% of the vineyards in Azerbaijan were irrigated, and 30.9% were cultivated in non-pouring conditions. In the 1980s, 50.1% of the total area of the vineyards consisted of plantations of local varieties of grapes. 16.4% of the vineyards occupied the cultivar of Madras, 11.2% - the Bayanshirei variety, 10.6% - Gamashara variety, 4.1% - Hindogna variety, 2.4% - Melei variety, 0.4% - Agra shir and Misperated, 3,4% - a variety of Tabrizi, 1.5% - varieties Ag shana and Gara Shan.
Over the centuries, through a natural selection and as a result of popular selection, a huge number of varieties and forms of grapes were created in Azerbaijan that required study, economic evaluation, botanical description and classification by groups.
The study of varietal variety of grapes in Azerbaijan was first started at the end of the XIX century (1840-1897) by F.Kolenati, G.Danielbekov, A.A. Kalantar, M.K. Ballas, etc. According to V.Radzievsky , in the former Nakhchivan province there were 33 varieties, in the Elizavetpol (Ganja) province - 18 varieties, in Shusha and Jebrail provinces - 21 varieties of grapes. Basically it was local varieties. The interest of wine growers in the study of the varietal wealth of grapes in Azerbaijan increased every year, but the work in this direction was unstable.
In the XVII century the traveler E. Chelebi in his "Diary of Travels", describing Shemakha, noted that there are 7 cultivated here, and 10 varieties of grapes in Karabakh and Southern Azerbaijan. GG Danilbekov and AA Kalantar indicate that Absheron is one of the oldest viticulture centers in Azerbaijan. In their works they write about the history of the development of viticulture in Azerbaijan, about the products made from grapes (wine, doshab, richal, meowoj, kishmish, etc.), describe the distinctive features of the grape varieties grown here.
In the V and VI editions of the "Handbook on Viticulture and Wine-Making in the Caucasus", published in 1896, information is given on grape varieties in the Shemakha, Geokchay and Irevan provinces. Valuable local varieties of Shemakha and Geokchay gubernias, such as Shirai, Shirvanshahi, Khazri, Chilli raisins, Ati raisins, Bilaganis, Mahmuddavi, Devegozi, etc., as well as dozens of the best native varieties of the Irevan grapes (Khardzhi, Askeri, Miskali, Gesendai, Achabash , Ag Saabi, Chilal, Ordusu, Tulkyuguyrugu, Galyngabyg, Shirshira, Shekerbur, Tabarza, Molla Ahmedi, Shahangir, Ambari, Dik Harji, Kerimgendi, Okuzgyozu, Girmyzy saabi, Yalanchi Gulabi, Gulabi, Yagubi, Gara aldere, Tambei, etc.) were allocated in groups according to the color of the berries (white, pink, red). Based on this source, it can be argued that the Nakhichevan and Irevan provinces were very rich in local varieties of grapes.
In the works of T.Babayev, there is information about the presence of a large number of local varieties of grapes in the villages of Bolyand, Horovlu of the Jebrail district, along the rivers Gozluchay, Kendalanchay and Guruchai in the Fizuli region. The author writes that, bypassing the vineyards in these localities and talking with the old-timers, he discovered a large number of aboriginal varieties of grapes with high taste qualities: Ag raisins, Garra raisins, Nenem, Naru kelu raisins, Giavra, Alagoz, Gyozal raisins, Horhor, Garagat , Dashgararty, Shykhverdi and others.
In Meghri and Zangilan regions of Azerbaijan, which are the ancient centers of viticulture, more than 50 table and technical varieties of grapes were grown, the most common among them being Arna Gna and Agdere. These varieties were used for making dessert and table wines, dried grapes, and also used fresh.
It should be noted that from 1946 to 1984 in the former Soviet Union a multivolume "Ampelography of the USSR" was published. In this work, a description of 3070 varieties of grapes is given, incl. 1445 technical, 1232 dining rooms and 393 universal. In the II-VI volumes of this ampelography, a detailed description of 8 Azerbaijani varieties of grapes is given (Bayanshira, Tabrizi, Gara lkeni, Madrasa, Ag shana, Gara Shan, Shirvanshahi). In the three-volume work "Little-spread grape varieties of the USSR" a short description of 80 varieties of grapes is placed. It should be noted that in these works more than 120 Azerbaijani varieties were deliberately renamed and presented as local varieties of Armenia, Iran, and Russia. So, for example, in II-VI volumes of the "Ampelography of the USSR", issued in 1953-1955, many valuable aboriginal varieties of grapes of Azerbaijan (Khardzhi, Dik hargi, Achabash, Girmizy saabi, Mermeri kishmish, Asma, Gara melei, Chekhrayi kishmish and others .) were renamed and represented by varieties of Armenian origin. MVAmanov revealed about 120 Armenian varieties of grapes appropriated by the Armenians and published a list of these varieties, indicating their age-old nomenclature.
Until 1945, in literary sources on viticulture, the varieties of national selection of Azerbaijan were indicated with their primary names. "Amrealography of Azerbaijan" contains a description of 94 varieties of grapes, 67 of which are local varieties. The description of the 21st grade is presented for the first time. The descriptions of ampelographic features of local and introduced varieties of grapes included in the "Ampelography of Azerbaijan" were studied by RK Allahverdiyev, AA Atakishiyev, JS Suleimanov, RA Mamedov, AN Asadullaev, I.K. .Abdullaev, Kh.P.Piriev, S.Sh.Mirzaev, F.M.Ahmedov, A.H.Tagiyev, A.Kh.Aliyev, S.A. Najafov, A.A.Gasymov, N.I.Agayeva , Kh.S. Dadashev, LMehdiyeva, KG Mamedova, MNAbbasov, AGIskenderov and other scientists of Azerbaijan.
During this period of development of viticulture, research in the field of variety studies, ampelography and selection was expanded, a strong group of scientists and specialists such as ANAsadullaev, AT Talybov, AG Atakishieva, RK Allahverdiyev, J S.Suleymanov, R.A. Mamedov, I.K.Abdullaev, F.G.Sharifov, D.Gasymov, S. A.Najafov, V.M.Guliyev, M.V.Amanov, A.T.Rasulov , GM Shikhlinsky. Dozens of valuable new varieties and forms, clones and introductions were included in the gene pool of the grapes of our republic as a result of research in the field of breeding (hybridization, clonal selection, mutations), sorting and introduction of grapes.
In the subsequent period of the history of viticulture, scientific research began to be conducted more in-depth and in accordance with the requirements of modern world science.
With the purpose of preserving the gene pool of grapes in the Republic and the rational use of the genetic resources of this valuable culture, scientists and specialists of the Azerbaijan Scientific Research Institute of Viticulture and Wine-making are conducting long-term scientific research on the identification, accumulation and evaluation of local and introduced varieties as well as wild forms of grapes. In 2002, the staff of the Institute in Apsheron district laid an ampelographic collection of 15 hectares, today numbering more than 320 varieties of grapes.
The decree of the government of the former Soviet Union "On measures to combat alcoholism and drunkenness", published in 1985, caused irreparable damage to viticulture and winemaking, the leading branch of the economy of Azerbaijan. As a result of the implementation of this decree, 130,000 hectares of fruit-bearing vineyards were uprooted in the republic. Valuable local varieties of grapes were endangered. In 1993, the total area of vineyards in Azerbaijan reduced to 127 thousand hectares, the volume of production of grapes amounted to 289 thousand tons, the yield per hectare - 228 c / ha. In comparison with 1985, the area of vineyards was reduced by 2 times, the volume of grapes production decreased by 1,500 thousand tons, the yield of grapes - by 58 centners per hectare. In 1992-1993, due to a number of reasons of objective and subjective nature, the viticulture and winemaking sector, which plays an important role in the economic well-being of the country, fell into decay.
The area of fruit-bearing vineyards has decreased from 286 thousand hectares to 10 thousand hectares. 43 thousand hectares of vineyards remained under the occupation of Armenians.
The state program "On social and economic development of the regions of the Republic of Azerbaijan (for 2004-2008)", approved by the President of the country, Mr. Ilham Aliyev, opened wide opportunities for the development of the agricultural sector, incl. viticulture.
"The State Program on Socio-Economic Development of the Regions of the Republic of Azerbaijan in 2009-2013" and "The State Program for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development in the Republic of Azerbaijan in 2008-2015" contributed to the development of the viticulture and winemaking sector.
"The State Program for the Development of Viticulture in the Republic of Azerbaijan in 2012-2020", adopted in December 2011, served as a powerful incentive for the development of this industry.
All of the above programs, as well as other state projects on the development of viticulture in Azerbaijan, approved by the government of the country in the last period of time, have yielded tangible results. So, according to statistical data of 2015, the area of vineyards in the republic amounted to 16.1 thousand hectares, the volume of production of grapes - 157.1 thousand tons. Hundreds of hectares of vineyards of the modern type are annually planted in the republic. "The state program for the development of viticulture in the Republic of Azerbaijan in 2012-2020" provides for 2020 to increase the area of vineyards in Azerbaijan to 50 thousand hectares, and the volume of production of grapes - up to 455 thousand tons.