Ampelography and selection

To make some achievements in the viticulture, achieve the production of Eco-friendly products, and solve the complex environmental problems of the vineyards, nowadays the research works of the selectors should focus on the creation of new varieties of grape and improvement of the resistance of the existing varieties against the diseases (mildew, odium, anthracnose, botrytis cinerea etc.), pests (phylloxera, etc.) and abiotic factors (frost, cold, draught, salt etc.).

For the solution of this problem a number of directions should be applied in experimental selection. One of the main criteria of this approach is the development of resistant analogues of the Europe-Asia grape varieties and new resistant varieties without reducing the quality and productivity of the Eurasian (V.vinifera L.) type and sometimes by development of new rare composition. The raise of the new grape varieties require the development and application of the modern technologies for their cultivation and delivery of a reasonable product. Obviously, it is necessary to organize the mutual activity of the agrotechnics, wine makers, physiologists, breeders, immunologists and other specialists.

Selection activities include the update of the varieties sometimes by achieving new quality, subject to keeping main quality indicators. It is clear that, the resistance of grape varieties against biotic and abiotic stress factors, their productivity and quality varies significantly depending on the features of the type they belong to. Grape varieties of Azerbaijan belong to Europe-Asia type (V.vinifera L.). In this regard, including Azerbaijan, the following classification of the selection directions of the grape varieties included in Europe-Asia type can be made.

- Increasing the productivity, along with the improvement of quality;

- Shortening the vegetation period of varieties and time of ripening of grape berries;

- Removing or improving the varieties, berries of which become pea-sized, flowers over spilled and poorly developed;

- Increasing the resistance against the fungal diseases;

- Increasing the resistance of the varieties against the root form of the phylloxera to be cultivated in the regions widely infected with phylloxera pest;

- Creating seedless varieties for drying and fresh use;

- Developing technical varieties for making high quality wines with intensive and durable colour.

In general, concrete tasks have been classified in the following way on the variety of the selection directions of grape in our Republic:

-technical varieties of grape for the production of the champagne is extremely limited in the republic;

- technical varieties of black grapes are not sufficient for the preparation of the red wine;

- there is a special demand for the development of the new earliest, early, late and too late growing grape varieties which are different for their complex economic characters which enable successful cultivation in different environmental-geographical regions of our republic and which can provide the population and processing facilities with fresh grape and raw material for a long time;

- Varieties of table grape for storage and transport to long distance are too limited;

- Number of existing grape varieties for the production of Eco-friendly seedless raisins and raisins do not meet the demand and the varieties of raisins with large berries are limited.

The historical development of the selection process enables us to divide it into several phases. The oldest method of the selection is a simple sampling. In ancient times people selected quality, delicious berries and fruits with large berries, including grape and cultivated them near their dwellings. One of the oldest methods of the selection is the sampling and cultivation of the highly productive, quality and well developed forms among the saplings derived from the sprinkling of seeds obtained as a result of natural pollination. The method of selection of grapes by sprinkling the grape seeds for the first time is found in the works of Teofrasta (III century BC). In many countries around the world, majority of the aboriginal grape varieties have been developed through the sampling of the valuable forms from the saplings resulted from the sprinkling of the seeds obtained from natural or artificial pollution.

Sampling made by human is called artificial sampling. Artificial sampling has two types: random and methodical sampling. Random sampling was done by our ancestors from ancient times. Ancient farmers selected and planted large seeds, fruits and berries with good taste and quality with no purpose at all. Best form of the artificial sampling is the methodical sampling. The procedures in this sampling are optimal. The selector conducts this sampling in a pre-defined manner, appearance of plants, their morphological features, biological and farming features are defined in advance. Two types of selection are being used: mass selection and individual selection

In the implementation of the selection, first of all the selection of the initial material and selection type is very important. Upon estimation of the initial material in the grape selection, their genetic, environmental-geographical source, phylogenetic development, immunological and biological-economic characteristics should be taken into account.

Nowadays, the selection types of grape are classified in the following manner:

1) massive sprinkling of seeds obtained as a result of natural pollution;

2) artificial sexual hybridization;

3) vegetative hybridization;

4) clone and phytosanitary selection.

  • First and simple method of selection - introducing nice, plenteous, tasty and quality grapes to the settlements and planting.
  • Method of sprinkling seeds of cultural herbs and sampling valuable saplings: In XVIII and XIX centuries Malingre, Kurtilye, Bushe, Salamon, Forster and Van-Mouns were intensively engaged in sprinkling grape seeds and selection of saplings. This method is now widely used.
  • Method of deriving new varieties through hybridization (interspecies and intraspecies) and mutagenesis Experimental mutagenesis and hybridization is one of the widely spread methods of the artificial selection. By hybridization the characters and features of the two or more parent forms are reflected in one hybrid organism. Hybridization has increased the options of the sampling. Through hybridization, it is possible to collect the desirable characters or complex of characters of the initial parent forms in the new hybrid organism. With this method, it is also possible to obtain new hybrid form, a completely new organism which has not been observed in the nature and normal cultivation conditions. Depending on the purpose of the selection, the hybridization is conducted on various taxonomic level - intersex, interspecies, intraspecies and in single cases inbreeding.

Intraspecies and interspecies crossing is an efficient method for the creation of complex resistant grape varieties to diseases, pests.

The crossing made among a number of valuable Europe-Asia varieties (Aleatiko, Turica, Sovinion, Pinoguri, Rkasiteli, Rubinovy Magarac, Moldavian Black, Risling, Traminer, Pino, Nimrand, Hamburger, Kuprashvili seuli) with interspecies complex hybrids (Save Villar 18-315, Zeybel 13-666, Seyv Villar 12-375, Zeybel 70-58, Seyv Villar 12-375, Magarach No79-64-39) resulted with the resistant, even complex resistant hybrid forms against the fungal diseases, pests, in particular phylloxera.

Intraspecies hybridization and its implementation: Usually, although the cultivation of high resistant grape forms is difficult in intraspecies hybridization, this method is incomparable for the creation of the grape varieties with new quality and high productivity. The essence of this method is that the required parent pairs are selected within the same variety and cross -pollination is made between them. Hybridization was used among the varieties under the V.vinifera variety in the second part of the XIX century. With this method for the first time Miller Turgay variety (Risling x Silvaner) was obtained in Germany, and Alikant Bushe (Pti Bushe x Grenaj) in France.

Interspecies hybridization in the viticulture is carried out by taking into account various quality and quantity characters of the parent forms (shape, density and size of the cluster; size, shape and color of the berry; skin and pulp of berry; density of berry; color of the juice, amount of the sugar and acidity; productivity of grapevine; size, shape and color of leaf, degree of fluffiness; flower type; resistance to the unfavourable environmental conditions etc.).

Intraspecies, or intravarieties hybridization has been widely used for the grape selection in the Viticulture And Wine-Making Research Institute. The improvement and assessment activities are carried out on the table grape and technical grape varieties, created by the scientists of the Institute using classical and modern selection methods,, which are in line with the requirements of the modern farming, resistant to the extreme environmental conditions, with high quality.

As a result of the researches more than 60 hybrid forms of grape with various directions have been developed by involving varieties and forms with different characters and features into hybridization. State Commission on Testing and Protection of the Selection achievements approved and districted the ‘Azeri’ grape variety on March 24, 2005 and ‘Goygol’ grape variety in 2010.

After the completion of the selection, ‘Ilhami’ and ‘Shamakhy hediyyesi’ varieties have been delivered to State Commission on Testing and Protection of the Selection achievements in 2011, ‘Bahrali’ and ‘Kapaz’ in 2012, ‘Shirali’ and ‘Ganjavi’ varieties in 2013 and ‘Garabulagi’ in 2014. The researches made by the Institute in the field of selection are highly appreciated by the international scientific centers. New variety of grape 'Azeri' created by the institute was awarded with XXVII International Prize ‘For Quality’ by 'Club of Trade Leaders' in Madrid, Spain and with 'Diamond Star' International Price by National Marketing Institute in Guadalajara of Mexico in 2002.

New hybrid grape varieties derived from the hybridization of various grape varieties in the Viticulture and Wine making Research Institute (VWRI)

New hybrid grape varieties developed and districted by the Institute

Districted hybrid grape variety of VWRI 'Azeri'

Grapevine of Goygol grape variety

Districted hybrid grape variety of VWRI 'Goygol'

Bahrali variety (Bayanshira x Semilyon No 6-9-17 hybrid form)

Grapevine of Bahrali variety

Kepez variety

(Tavkveri x Khindogni - No 1-37 hybrid)

Hybrid grape varieties submitted to the State Service for Registration of Crop Varieties and Seed Control which have to be tested and districted

Shamakhy hediyyesi variety

(Tavkveri x Medrese hybrid form)

Grapevine of Shamakhy hediyyesi variety

Ilhami variety

(Goyungozu x Shamakhy hediyyesi hybrid form)

Shireli variety

(Aligote x Bayanshire hybrid form)

Grapevine of Shireli variety

Ganjavi variety

(Ag shani x Bayanshira hybrid form)

Garabulagi variety

(Ag shani x Tabrizi hybrid form)

Garabulagi variety

Potential hybrid grape varieties, the selection and assessment

of which is completed

Ag shani x Tebrizi hybrid form No 97-9-7

Grapevine of Ag shani x Chehrayi taify hybrid form

Ag shani x Chehrayi taify hybrid form

Emin variety

(Black raisin x disease-resistant variety)

(Ag shani x Tabrizi hybrid form)

(the latest growing form)

Aligote x Bayanshire hybrid form No 201-3

During the research years the hybridization of Uncinula necator-resistant wild grape with grape varieties with different resistance, quality and quantity indicators (Ag shanı, Ag Derbendi, Ganja gizili grape, Novrast, Safeyi, Absheron kechimemesi, Black grape, Red grape, Gara Shani varieties and Ag shani x Chehrayi Taify hybrid form) has been carried out and hundreds of hybrid saplings have been derived on 10 combinations. Valuable genotypes have been selected as a result of the assessment of generation, heterosis and dominance characteristics, as well as morphological, biological and immunological characteristics of the hybrid generation and selection was kept up. As a result, 27 hybrid form over 10 combinations have been defined and estimated in terms of their perspective.

Implementation of interspecies and distant hybridization: Distant hybridization method has an important role in the modern selection of grape. This method enables to sum up the valuable features and characteristics of the different grape varieties obtained through evolution process in a hybrid organism. For example, by crossing the high-quality and productive Europe-Asia varieties with disease-and-pest-resistant American varieties it is possible to derive new forms which are important both for farming and selection.

  • Vegetative hybridization method. This method of selection enables to derive lots of new forms.

Even classical methods, hybridization, sampling and experimental mutagenesis still are widely used in selection process in viticulture.

Obviously, any selection research starts from the selection of the initial material and its thorough assessment. In selection researches, a number of varieties, such as people selection, sampling of variety-population, experimental polyploidy and mutagenesis are used for creation of new varieties which meet the modern needs of the farming.

Polyploidy and mutagenesis in viticulture: For the creation of the new and valuable variety, the use of experimental mutagenesis and polyploidy methods in the selection is of great theoretical and practical importance. To create artificial mutation in agricultural plants, by influencing with physical and chemical mutagens, it was identified that a number of botanical, morphological, anatomic, cytological, physical, biochemical and other features in the plant were changed.

In modern selection along with classical methods, the creation of new plant varieties and forms involve also experimental mutagenesis and polyploidy methods. Experimental mutagenesis, one of the modern selection methods in viticulture, is widely used nowadays for the creation of very productive, disease-and-pest-resistant, early and late ripening grape forms with new and valuable biomorphological characteristics.

Mutation is one of the characteristics specific for all the creatures, including grape plant. The effect of various external factors can result with mutation in the organism. In this regard, the mutations are divided into natural (spontaneous) and artificial ones (induced). In general, the symptoms of the mutation in the organism is the change of the number and structure of chromosomes, as well as gene structure (gene or dotted mutation).

To achieve artificial mutation in the grape, physical and chemical mutagens are being applied to vegetative and generative organs, i.e. developing eyes, points of green sprouts, seeds, pollens etc. of the plant.

Academic I.K.Abdullayev together with his colleagues created a number of new, valuable grape varieties and forms with the application of experimental mutagenesis (Sherabi, Ferashi, Etirli, Fikrati, Melahetli, Aynuri etc.).

It is known that with the effect of mutagenic substances certain changes take place in the phenotype of the plants, including grapes. These changes take place as a result of the effect made by mutagenic substances in various phases of the cell division of plants.

The effect of mutagenic substances result with the creation of gene and genom mutations (that is change in the number of chromosomes) in the genotype of the grape, which also lead to the change of the plodity of the plant.

  • Clone selection method: It is the selection of the vegetative changes, long-term modifications etc. occurring in the grapevines. Here the principle is the selection of the organs and individuals differing with the colour and taste of berry, size, shape and other morphological and biological-technological characteristics of the clusters. Nowadays two methods are widely used in the selection of clones:

1) selection of clones on morphological characteristics;

2) selection of highly productive clones.

Methods and importance of the clone selection activities in viticulture: In the selection activities for the improvement of the structure of the grape varieties, along with the wide application of new productive and quality varieties for each region, it is an important condition to use the clone selection as well. By the use of clone selection it is possible to increase the productivity of vineyards to 25-50%, sometimes even up to 100%.

Clone selection is used to clean the standard grape varieties from variety mix, on the other side to achieve the increase of productivity 1,5-2,0 times. In general, clone selection is one of the best methods used for increasing the productivity of grape varieties, and improving their morphological and farming indicators and phytosanitary thereof.

The clone is a collection of vegetative generation of a plant that is differing for some characters, and with close or similar heredity.

Nowadays two methods are widely used for selection of clones: selection of clones for their morphological features and high productivity. Although the method of 'Selection of highly productive clones’ in comparison with 'Sampling for morphological characters' is less reliable, difficult and quite long, it is efficient method. In this method, the sampling on grapevines is carried out only on the valuable farming features with high quantity indicators (productivity, high sugar, resistance to diseases, pest, frost and cold etc.). The difficulty of this method is that for long year individual assessment of the stability of selection and farming important indicators in the vegetative generation identified in the selected grapevines should be carried out.

Main feature of the individual sampling in clone selection is the selection of the grapevines with high productivity indicators for subsequent 3 years and verification in vegetative generation of the constancy of the higher productivity of each grapevine.

Individual sampling in viticulture is carried out on several directions:

-identification and selection of the bud mutations which lead to changes in one, or several quality indicators of plant;

- selection of clones on morphological characters (connections) which enable the identification of clones according to changes in morphological and biological indicators (digitation, dissection level of lamina, thickness of lamina, growth capacity of the grapevine, autumn foliage etc.) related with agro-biological indicators of clones;

- selection of clones on quantity indicators: On the basis of this sampling is the selection of genotypes resistant to environmental stress factors and diseases and pests, which have specific quality and sugar-collection character, and high quality, and have morphological similarity with the initial variety

Clone selection is important for the improvement of the grape genotypes heritage features of which have been deteriorated due to various reasons. In recent years clone selection activities of grape are widely implemented in the worldwide and by this method thousands of grape varieties have been involved in improvement program and 'highly productive and quality clone forms' created and widely applied in the production.

Considering the perspective and wide opportunities of this method, Viticulture and Winemaking Research Institute has widened the research works on this direction and included the clone selection into the selection programmes.

In accordance with the purpose of the research work, each year regularly local and introduced grape varieties cultivated in collection garden in experimental farms and institute are being evaluated from phonological, morphological, biological and technological point of view, highly productive clone forms, perspective and donor genotypes are identified and are recommended for use in farms and selection activities. As a result of researches, valuable local and introduced grape varieties heritage features of which have been worsened due to various reasons, have been involved in the improvement program, more than 50 highly productive and quality clone forms with adaptive features have been selected from various varieties, increased and this planting material was recommended to the farms.

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