Prevention from diseases and vermin in viticulture
Viticulture is one of the most lucrative sectors of agriculture. Economists estimate that the income, generated from viticulture, is twice the amount of the oil industry. However, diseases and pests reduce the productivity by harming to viticulture and even, in some cases, lead to the complete destruction of the plant.
There has been recently revealed that about 800 pests parasitizing to grape and more than 1,000 fungal and bacterial viral diseases were recorded. At the same time, it has been identified that up to 70 species of parasitic mites exist in viticulture. As a consequence of damage caused by ticks, the productivity of vine leaves are being reduced by 25-50%. Around 50 viral diseases promote to low productivity of output by 10% in the world.
There are a number of various methods (agro-technical, quarantine, physical, mechanical, biological, chemical, grafting, clone selection, immunoselection) to apply in an effort to minimize and reduce the damage caused by diseases and pests in viticulture. These controlling methods are able to decrease this kind of or any other type of illnesses, but the full protection of the product or plant is impossible.
Research Institute for Winegrowing and Winemaking fulfills researches in this direction embracing the pressing of the problem that requires urgent measures to be taken for combatting with pests and diseases. The main purpose of the research done in the lab of integrated control technologies is to learn the sustainability of newly-born hybrid and introductory grape sorts to diseases and pests though selection and measure efficiency by testing pesticides against vermin.
There are a great number of articles and books published in the lab of integrated control technologies based on scientific research. Publications under the titles of "The grape diseases and pests, pest control techniques " and "Agro-technical controlling measures against pest and disease in viticulture” in 2010 and 2011 are the promotion for whom deals with vineyard. These books piled under the custody of the director of the institute T.M. Panahov and representatives of the lab of integrated control technologies provide detailed information about the grape and its protection.
As a result of studies we have acquired information by testing many insecticides and fungicides against the clusters caterpillar and odium, the most common one for Absheron, and their efficiency, toxicity duration and damage to the environment. There are Bayleton, Kumulus, Kollis, Kabrio-Top and a mixture of salt with sulfur-type ionic liquid and so on among the tested fungicides.
Due to import from abroad, crop protection chemicals are expensive and causes the flow of the national currency abroad.
There is a need for local production of chemicals in our country, and for this purpose, the Institute of Petrochemical Processes of ANAS together with AzRVI tested verminicide such as new " 2-morfolilmetil-5-metilfenolun complex salt" in order to combat oidium, the most prevalent disease in viticulture, and recommended it to apply in the farm. Industrial production of verminicide is planned in the future. It must be noted that the method of using verminicide such as new " 2-morfolilmetil-5-metilfenolun complex salt" in order to combat oidium has been licensed (patent №20130085) by the Standardization, Metrology and Patents Committee in the current year. In order to combat with Mildiu diseases, " polyacrylamide " drug has been tested and the following results have been obtained.
The utilization of the product considerably reduces the use of blue stone and prevents it from being uncovered.
PAA product is 10 times cheaper than those one, which are currently being used. Sumisidin, Fastak, Spuer tachymeter and so on have been tested against the clusters caterpillar and revealed that it is suitable for Azerbaijan.
The main purpose of the tests is to recommend non-polluting verminicides to farmers thus they do not harm the environment and possess toxic effects which are more selective.
The definition of verminicide is "pest" harmful organism, "sido" means “I am killing”. Verminicides are divided into 2 groups according to their mechanism of effect: system and contact. According to the impact level of verminicides, they are divided into fungicides, insecticides and herbicides.
Fungicides are used against fungi (mildiu, oidium), insecticides are used against pests (Clusters caterpillar, phylloxera) and herbicides are used against weeds.
We intend to widely use the comprehensive controlling measures in future research of integrated combatting technologies. Thus, it will be effective if agricultural, biological and chemical measures are implemented together to combat against diseases and pests. It is intended to observe diseases and pests in the lab for future researches. A number of factors such as land, climate, agrotechnincs and so on. have influence on sustainability of sorts and hybrids. Avoiding side effects of the sustainability of other sorts we can get enough information about the sustainability of this sort against diseases and pests. It is possible to create new sorts by using these sorts in future selections.
Summarizing above all, we can give brief information about pesticides used against diseases and pests in Azerbaijan:
Plasmopora viticola Berl is made from mushrooms and it is the main and the most dangerous disease of grapes. It damages to all the green parts of the grape leaves: green shoots, buds, flowers and unripe seeds. Ripen seeds are not affected by disease. External signs are a yellowish oily spots turn out on the upper side of the leaf. So, white powder layer like flour is formed right after the moisture in the air, rain and fog. After 2-3 weeks later, leaves turn out grey and dry. Disease-causing fungus overwinters in fallen leaves in zoospore form. When the average daily temperature is 11 ° C and the air humidity is high, the zoospores begin to develop. It is dangerous for output if the leaves of the grape cause the loss of harvest in spring and the first half of summer.
OIDIUM (Ucinula Necator Burill )
Oidium disease is extremely dangerous for the entire wine-growing zones.
The disease infects the leaves, shoots and seeds of grapes. Some white powder layer like flour is formed on the leave petioles. Later, this layer becomes grayish-ash. The infected leaves become fragile and dry earlier than expected. The edges of the leaves bend upward most of the time. Oidiuma infected leaves smells like fish. Infected buds and flowers leave the plant. These seeds gets naked and it enbales clusters to infect gray mold. Oidium can’t develop on the ripen seeds. Disease-causing fungus overwinter in buds and shoots in mycelium form. The lowest temperature for oidium is 4 0 C while the highest is + 30 0C. Humidity suffices if it is 25% or higher.
Gray mold ( the cause of the fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers )
It starts developing on the seeds during ripening period. It affects in drizzly and rainy weather. It overwinters on the surface of the land and plant leftovers. It remains on the seeds though the wind. Infected seeds gets gray in a short time. Gray mold fungus can’t inflect unripen grape seeds because of high amount of organic acid. Seeds affected by mildiu, oidium and cluster caterpillar diseases infects gray mold.
Phylloxera (Phylloxera vastatrix)
Phylloxera is the most frightening pest. He only lives in the grape plant. The homeland of phylloxera is North America. Phylloxera was introduced in 50s of nineteenth century and brought from Europe to North America. Phylloxera was discovered in 1925 in Azerbaijan. Phylloxera belongs to subgroup of aphids (Aphididae) of right-wing trunked group of insects (Homoptero) and toTihsch vitifoli type of phylloxera. There are 2 types of pests according to development stage and damaging features: leaf and root pests. In American vineyards phyloxera affects the roots and leaves as well as completes the full development cycle. However, phyloxera incomplete the development cycle and only lives in roots in Europe and Asia. During the opening of buds, larva emerges in spring eggs and clinges on the upper part of young leaves. Larva opens a few holes where it sticks. As a result, a number of lumps appear on the bottom of the leaf. Larva are fed inside the lumps during 18-25 days and turns into females. They lay eggs up to 500 and die. After 6-8 days the second-generation larva are formed. During summer, phylloxera give a birth about 6-7 times.
If phylloxera gives harm to the tip of young roots, then, it transforms into a bird's head, and this is called nedozytet injury. Grape leaves rarely receives damage, so new young shell can easily be re-formed.
If phylloxera damages one-year, biannual, three-year or older grape leaves, then, a thickening is formed named tuberosities. Depending on the grape sorts, roots can be destroy when they are 5-8 years old.
Cluster caterpillar (Polychrosis botrane Schiff)
Cluster caterpillar is the most dangerous pest after phylloxera. It affects badly to dense cluster of grapes. Because when cluster of grapes are damages by pest caterpillars, then rapid decay process commences.
These pests gives a birth 3 times a year. They overwinter their pupal stage under the shell, branches and the wounded leaves. The length of the pupals is 5-6 mm. Butterflies turn out in the end of April and May. Butterflies are small, but when they open their wings, they reach up to 13 mm. They feed on water for 10-12 days, and then start laying eggs. The female lays eggs up to 80 on the buds and flowers of the grapes. After 6 or 7 days, larva begins to appear as a first generation. The second generation of larva occurs in the second half of June. The second generation lays their eggs on the green seeds and they are easily seen. Eggs are flat and glossy-border in yellow colour with 0.6-0.7 mm in diameter. The third generation butterflies lays the egg on ripen seeds. Cluster caterpillars are light green. These caterpillars moves from one grape The transformation process of larva happens in wouded leaves, under shell and damaged seeds.
In Azerbaijan, phytopatholog and entomolog researchers have recommended controlling measures againts diseases and pests as well as their types and quantities of chemicals and their periods to be implemented. So, it is advised to use 1% of burgundy fluid, 0.4% kupros, 0.4% chamois, 0.4% polycarbonate, 0.4% polychrome, 0.4% syneb (4 to 6 kg / ha for all), 4 kg / ha of mical, 2.8-3.3 kg / ha of arsenide, 0.5 kg / ha of ridomide in order to combat against mildiu disease. It is relevant to use 20% for olive supplementation (1.5-1.5 kg / ha), 50% rye (1-1.5 kg / ha), 50% 70% of topsin-M (1-1.5 kg / ha), 20% fadzorph (1,5-2,25 kg / ha), castoid sulfur (9-12 kg / ha) and sulfur powder 15-30 kg / ha), and balcaton (norm 3.5 kg / ha) in order to combat against oidium disease.