The role of Heydar Aliyev in the development of viticulture and winemaking

The leader of the Azerbaijani people, the far-sighted politician and skilful leader Geidar Alirza oglu Aliyev always highly appreciated the potential opportunities of the viticulture and winemaking sector, emphasizing its great importance for the economic well-being of the country. The entire period of leadership of the republic, beginning in 1969, he paid special attention to the development of viticulture and winemaking. Thanks to the decrees and decrees adopted by him, the areas of vine plantations in the republic have expanded considerably, and the production of grapes has increased.

In order to manage the viticulture and winemaking industry, on the personal initiative of Heydar Aliyev in 1970, the State Committee for Viticulture and Wine-making was established in the Republic of Azerbaijan. To ensure the development of this industry on scientific bases, by the decision of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Azerbaijan dated August 12, 1976, at number 269, the Azerbaijan Scientific Research Institute of Viticulture and Wine-making was organized. In order to introduce the achievements of science into production, experimental stations and strong points in Nakhichevan AR, Ganja city, Shemakha and Jalilabad districts of the republic were submitted to the subordination of this institute.

In order to provide the wine industry with engineers-technologists, mechanical engineers and other qualified personnel, at the insistence of Heydar Aliyev in 1981 the government of the former Soviet Union issued a decree on the establishment of the Azerbaijan Technological Institute in Ganja.

The viticulture industry in Azerbaijan reached its peak in its development, the highest growth, precisely in the days of Heydar Aliyev's leadership (in 1969-1982). During this period, the area of ​​vineyards expanded from year to year, yields increased and the quality of grapes improved. The main result of care and attention given by Heydar Aliyev to the viticulture industry, the Azerbaijani people saw the fruits of his tireless labor in 1984. That year the total area of ​​vineyards in the republic reached 286 thousand hectares, the production of grapes - 2.12 million tons, the yield per hectare - 100 centners.

The successful implementation of the planned activities for the development of viticulture contributed to the emergence of the Republic of Azerbaijan at one of the first places in the former Soviet Union and enabled the most efficient use of natural and economic resources to raise the level of production of high-quality table grapes and increase the production of wine. Since 1970, the state of existing vineyards has been constantly improving in the republic, and new vineyards have been laid. The laying of new vineyards with various grape varieties in individual wine-growing farms of Azerbaijan has become widespread. It should be noted that due to the disproportionate correlation between table and technical varieties on existing vineyards, it was planned to expand the planting of local varieties of grapes, which are distinguished by high quality indicators.

With the purpose of promptly eliminating the problems that arose in the viticulture industry, a number of urgent tasks were planned under the direct leadership of Heydar Aliyev. The Bureau of the Central Committee was asked the question "Serious deficiencies in the development of viticulture and measures to ensure the solution of tasks aimed at increasing the production of grapes and wine in the republic." As a result of the successful implementation of these measures, the situation in the viticulture industry has improved significantly. In 1970, 672 farms were engaged in the cultivation of grapes in Azerbaijan, including 244 specialized vineyard sovkhozes. At that time, extensive research work was carried out in the field of viticulture. In order to ensure the intensive development of viticulture and winemaking in Azerbaijan, 10 natural and economic zones were identified that are promising for this sector, in which large vineyard sovkhozes and agro-industrial complexes later operated.

If in 1970 the total area of ​​vineyards in the republic was 121.6 thousand hectares, in 1975 it reached 178.1 thousand hectares. In comparison with 1970, in 1975 the production of grapes increased 2 times, ie, it increased from 351.7 thousand tons to 706.2 thousand tons. Yield per hectare increased from 46.8 centner / hectare to 65.1 centner / ha. In 1973, the volume of the harvest of grapes amounted to 397 thousand tons, which was 114 thousand tons more than in 1972 and 186 thousand tons more than in 1971. Heydar Aliyev, explaining the possibility of raising the level of production only through intensification, demanded from the relevant organizations and agricultural bodies, from each kolkhoz and sovkhoz, the implementation of specific activities to achieve the intended goal.

In 1980-1985, 85.3% of industrial vineyards in the republic were technical varieties of grapes, 14.7% - dining rooms. In 1970-1980 viticulture in the republic began to develop at high rates. In this period 180 thousand hectares of new vineyards were laid. The total area of ​​the vineyards has reached 270 thousand hectares. Along with the viticulture industry, its processing industry also developed - winemaking.

Decree of the KP and the Council of Ministers of the former Soviet Union of February 29, 1979 "On Measures for the Specialization of Agricultural Production and the Development of Viticulture and Wine-Making in Azerbaijan" put grandiose tasks on the agenda. By this resolution it was envisaged to increase the production of grapes in the republic in 1990 to 2.5-3.0 million tons.

In 1980-1984, the production of grapes in the republic was brought to 1.7-2.1 million tons, the yield per hectare reached 70-100 centners. In 1984, the total area of ​​the vineyards was 284.1 thousand hectares, the harvesting of grapes - 2,126 thousand tons, the yield per hectare, reaching the highest level, was 99.2 centners. According to the volume of production of grapes, Azerbaijan came out on top in the former Soviet Union.

Naturally, the development of viticulture is impossible without the presence of varieties of grapes. During the intensive development of viticulture, 69.1% of the vineyards in Azerbaijan were irrigated, and 30.9% were cultivated in non-pouring conditions. In the 1980s, 50.1% of the total area of ​​the vineyards consisted of plantations of local varieties of grapes. 16.4% of the vineyards occupied the cultivar of Madras, 11.2% - the Bayanshirei variety, 10.6% - Gamashara variety, 4.1% - Hindogna variety, 2.4% - Melei variety, 0.4% - Agra shir and Misperated, 3,4% - a variety of Tabrizi, 1.5% - varieties Ag shana and Gara Shan.

Over the centuries, through a natural selection and as a result of popular selection, a huge variety of varieties and forms of grapes were created in Azerbaijan that required study, economic evaluation, botanical description and classification by groups.